The temples are, however, the last links of the series of monuments created in Orissa. There are specimens of Mauryan art of third century B.C. in the rock cut elephant at Dhauli near Bhubaneswar, the remnant of an Asokan pillar, turned now into a huge Siva Lingam enshrined in the Bhasakareswar Temple at Bhubaneswar and the lion capital of an Asokan pillar, now in the Orissa State Museum. Bhubaneswar.
The next stage of evolution in Orissan art and architecture is mirrored in the rock cut caves at Khandagiri and Udayagiri, close to Bhubaneswar, caused to be made by the great emperor of ancient Kalinga Mahameghavahana Aira Kharavela, during his short but eventful reign of thirteen years, as revealed from the famous Hathigumpha inscription dated in the 1st century B.C. The twin hills of Khandagiri and Udayagiri are honey-combed with well carved caves meant for Jaina ascetics. The caves bearing different names such as Ranigumpha, Ganesh Gumpha, Manchapuri Gumpha, Navamuni Gumpha etc. are divided into two groups. The earlier group belonging to the 1st century B.C. and the latter group to the 9th to 10th centuries A.D.
The caves are small, simple and utilitarian in character, meant for providing limited living accommodations in the rainy season to the wandering Jaina ascetics. The simplicity and utilitarian nature of these caves are in conformity with the austere Jaina idealism and traditions. Most of these caves have bas-reliefs depicting Jaina objects of devotion and sacred symbols. There are also stories of the time carved on cave walls. The sculptures depict artistic excellence marked by vigour and simplicity and can be compared with the motifs of western Indian cave architecture as well as that of Barhut, Sanchi and Bodh Gaya. To almost the same period or a little later we can assign the remains of an apsidal structure at the top of Udayagiri, which was in all probability, a chaitya-griha. Besides, the Naga and Yaksa images found in and around Bhubaneswar belong to the post Kharavela period or early centuries of Christian era. These Naga and Yaksa images bear close resemblance with their proto-types found at Sanchi, Mathura and Rajgir. These were no doubt parts of earlier stupas at Bhubaneswar, which could not survive the vicissitudes of time. But one finds remnants of two stupas in the shape of circular mounds around Bhubaneswar even today.
Another monument of significance during the period was the ancient fortification of Sisupalagarh near Bhubaneswar. In fact the antiquity